The pancreas is an organ located behind the stomach and near the small intestine. It produces and distributes insulin, digestive enzymes, and other necessary hormones.
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is inflammation of the pancreas. It occurs suddenly and causes pain in the upper abdominal (or epigastric) region. The pain often radiates to your back.
AP can also involve other organs. It can also develop into chronic pancreatitis if you have continued episodes.What causes acute pancreatitis?
Acute pancreatitis is caused directly or indirectly. Direct causes affect the pancreas itself, its tissues, or its ducts. Indirect causes result from diseases or conditions that originate somewhere else in your body.
Gallstones are one of the major causes of acute pancreatitis. Gallstones can lodge in the common bile duct and block the pancreatic duct. This impairs fluid from flowing to and from the pancreas and causes damage.Direct causes
Other direct causes of acute pancreatitis include:
Indirect causes of acute pancreatitis include:
Drinking too much alcohol can put you at risk for pancreatic inflammation. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) defines “too much” as more than one drink a day for women and a maximum of two drinks a day for men. Men are more at risk than women for developing alcohol-related pancreatitis.
Smoking tobacco also increases your chance of AP. Smoking and drinking rates are similar in black and white Americans, but black Americans are more than two times as likely to develop AP. A family history of cancer, inflammation, or another pancreatic condition also puts you at risk.Recognizing the symptoms of acute pancreatitis
The predominant symptom of acute pancreatitis is abdominal pain.
Pain may vary depending on certain factors. These include:
Other symptoms can also increase the pain and discomfort. These include:
When any of these symptoms are accompanied by abdominal pain, you should seek immediate medical care.Diagnosing acute pancreatitis
Your doctor can diagnose AP by using blood tests and scans. The blood test looks for enzymes (amylase and lipase) leaking from the pancreas. An ultrasound, CT, or MRI scan allows your doctor to see any abnormalities in or around your pancreas. Your doctor will also ask about your medical history and ask you to describe your discomfort.Treating acute pancreatitis
Often you will be admitted to the hospital for more testing and to make sure you get enough fluids, usually intravenously. Your doctor may order medications to reduce pain and treat any possible infections. If these treatments don’t work, you may need surgery to remove damaged tissue, drain fluid, or correct blocked ducts. If gallstones caused the problem, you may need surgery to remove the gallbladder.
If your doctor concludes that a medication is causing your acute pancreatitis, stop using that medication right away. If a traumatic injury caused your pancreatitis, avoid the activity until you’re fully recovered from treatment. Check with your doctor before increasing your activity.
You may experience a lot of pain after acute pancreatitis, surgery, or other treatments. If prescribed pain medication, be sure to follow your doctor’s plan to reduce your discomfort once you get home. Avoid smoking completely, and drink a lot of fluids to make sure you don’t get dehydrated.
If pain or discomfort is still unbearable, it is important to check back with your doctor for a follow-up evaluation.
Acute pancreatitis is sometimes linked with type 2 diabetes, which affects your insulin production. Eating foods like lean protein, leafy vegetables, and whole grains can help your pancreas produce insulin more regularly and gently.Lifestyle and diet
Stay hydrated at all times. Keep a water bottle or an electrolyte-infused drink like Gatorade.
Help prevent AP by limiting the amount of alcohol you drink. If you’ve already had pancreatitis and haven’t made lifestyle changes, it’s possible to develop it again. Children, and teens under the age of 19, should not take aspirin unless their doctor prescribes it. Aspirin can cause Reye’s syndrome, which is a known trigger for acute pancreatitis.Complications of acute pancreatitis
Acute pancreatitis can cause pseudocysts in your pancreas. These fluid-filled sacks can lead to infections and even internal bleeding. Acute pancreatitis can also disrupt the balance of your body chemistry. This can lead to more complications.
You might also face the possibility of diabetes or kidney issues that lead to dialysis. Or malnutrition, if your acute pancreatitis is severe, or if you develop chronic pancreatitis over time.
In some people, acute pancreatitis can be the first sign of pancreatic cancer. Talk to your doctor about treatment as soon as you’re diagnosed with acute pancreatitis to avoid complications. Quick and effective treatment reduces your risk of complications significantly.
Pancreatitis can cause serious short-term pain. Untreated cases and recurrences can lead to chronic problems. Most cases can be treated. If you’re admitted to the hospital for acute pancreatitis, how long you will need to stay is based on the severity of your episode. Avoid drinking alcohol, strenuous exercise, and follow a diet plan that allows your pancreas to heal before returning to your normal diet.
Pancreatitis symptoms can be confusing. Abdominal pain and back pain can have other causes. If you notice these symptoms see your doctor.
Acute pancreatitis can be treated successfully, and usually lifestyle changes will allow you to live your life comfortably, even if you have flare-ups now and then. Talk to your doctor to make sure you’re following the right treatment plan and lifestyle changes to lessen your risk of future bouts of acute pancreatitis.
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The notion of ‘grammatical meaning’.
The word combines in its semantic structure two meanings – lexical and grammatical. Lexical meaning is the individual meaning of the word (e.g. table). Grammatical meaning is the meaning of the whole class or a subclass. For example, the class of nouns has the grammatical meaning of thingness. If we take a noun (table) we may say that it possesses its individual lexical meaning (it corresponds to a definite piece of furniture) and the grammatical meaning of thingness (this is the meaning of the whole class). Besides, the noun ‘table’ has the grammatical meaning of a subclass – countableness. Any verb combines its individual lexical meaning with the grammatical meaning of verbiality – the ability to denote actions or states. An adjective combines its individual lexical meaning with the grammatical meaning of the whole class of adjectives – qualitativeness – the ability to denote qualities. Adverbs possess the grammatical meaning of adverbiality – the ability to denote quality of qualities.
There are some classes of words that are devoid of any lexical meaning and possess the grammatical meaning only. This can be explained by the fact that they have no referents in the objective reality. All function words belong to this group – articles, particles, prepositions, etc.
Types of grammatical meaning.
The grammatical meaning may be explicit and implicit. The implicit grammatical meaning is not expressed formally (e.g. the word table does not contain any hints in its form as to it being inanimate). The explicit grammatical meaning is always marked morphologically – it has its marker. In the word cats the grammatical meaning of plurality is shown in the form of the noun; cat’s – here the grammatical meaning of possessiveness is shown by the form ‘s; is asked – shows the explicit grammatical meaning of passiveness.
The implicit grammatical meaning may be of two types – general and dependent. The general grammatical meaning is the meaning of the whole word-class, of a part of speech (e.g. nouns – the general grammatical meaning of thingness). The dependent grammatical meaning is the meaning of a subclass within the same part of speech. For instance, any verb possesses the dependent grammatical meaning of transitivity/intransitivity, terminativeness/non-terminativeness, stativeness/non-stativeness; nouns have the dependent grammatical meaning of contableness/uncountableness and animateness/inanimateness. The most important thing about the dependent grammatical meaning is that it influences the realization of grammatical categories restricting them to a subclass. Thus the dependent grammatical meaning of countableness/uncountableness influences the realization of the grammatical category of number as the number category is realized only within the subclass of countable nouns, the grammatical meaning of animateness/inanimateness influences the realization of the grammatical category of case, teminativeness/non-terminativeness - the category of tense, transitivity/intransitivity – the category of voice.
Grammatical categories are made up by the unity of identical grammatical meanings that have the same form (e.g. singular::plural). Due to dialectal unity of language and thought, grammatical categories correlate, on the one hand, with the conceptual categories and, on the other hand, with the objective reality. It may be shown with the help of a triangle model:
Conceptual reality Conceptual category
Objective reality Lingual reality Objective category Grammatical category
It follows that we may define grammatical categories as references of the corresponding objective categories. For example, the objective category of time finds its representation in the grammatical category of tense, the objective category of quantity finds its representation in the grammatical category of number. Those grammatical categories that have references in the objective reality are called referential grammatical categories. However, not all of the grammatical categories have references in the objective reality, just a few of them do not correspond to anything in the objective reality. Such categories correlate only with conceptual matters:
They are called significational categories. To this type belong the categories of mood and degree. Speaking about the grammatical category of mood we can say that it has modality as its conceptual correlate. It can be explained by the fact that it does not refer to anything in the objective reality – it expresses the speaker’s attitude to what he says.
The notion of opposition.
Any grammatical category must be represented by at least two grammatical forms (e.g. the grammatical category of number – singular and plural forms). The relation between two grammatical forms differing in meaning and external signs is called opposition – book::books (unmarked member/marked member). All grammatical categories find their realization through oppositions, e.g. the grammatical category of number is realized through the opposition singular::plural.
Taking all the above mentioned into consideration, we may define the grammatical category as the opposition between two mutually exclusive form-classes (a form-class is a set of words with the same explicit grammatical meaning).
Means of realization of grammatical categories may be synthetic (near – nearer) and analytic (beautiful – more beautiful).
Transposition and neutralization of morphological forms.
In the process of communication grammatical categories may undergo the processes of transposition and neutralization.
Transposition is the use of a linguistic unit in an unusual environment or in the function that is not characteristic of it (He is a lion). In the sentence He is coming tomorrow the paradigmatic meaning of the continuous form is reduced and a new meaning appears – that of a future action. Transposition always results in the neutralization of a paradigmatic meaning. Neutralization is the reduction of the opposition to one of its members : custom :: customs – x :: customs; x :: spectacles.
LECTURE 4: THE PARTS OF SPEECH PROBLEM. WORD CLASSES
The parts of speech are classes of words, all the members of these classes having certain characteristics in common which distinguish them from the members of other classes. The problem of word classification into parts of speech still remains one of the most controversial problems in modern linguistics. The attitude of grammarians with regard to parts of speech and the basis of their classification varied a good deal at different times. Only in English grammarians have been vacillating between 3 and 13 parts of speech. There are four approaches to the problem:
The classical parts of speech theory goes back to ancient times. It is based on Latin grammar. According to the Latin classification of the parts of speech all words were divided dichotomically into declinable and indeclinable parts of speech. This system was reproduced in the earliest English grammars. The first of these groups, declinable words, included nouns, pronouns, verbs and participles, the second – indeclinable words – adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. The logical-inflectional classification is quite successful for Latin or other languages with developed morphology and synthetic paradigms but it cannot be applied to the English language because the principle of declinability/indeclinability is not relevant for analytical languages.
A new approach to the problem was introduced in the XIX century by Henry Sweet. He took into account the peculiarities of the English language. This approach may be defined as functional. He resorted to the functional features of words and singled out nominative units and particles. To nominative parts of speech belonged noun-words (noun, noun-pronoun, noun-numeral, infinitive, gerund), adjective-words (adjective, adjective-pronoun, adjective-numeral, participles), verb (finite verb, verbals – gerund, infinitive, participles), while adverb, preposition, conjunction and interjection belonged to the group of particles. However, though the criterion for classification was functional, Henry Sweet failed to break the tradition and classified words into those having morphological forms and lacking morphological forms, in other words, declinable and indeclinable.
A distributional approach to the parts to the parts of speech classification can be illustrated by the classification introduced by Charles Fries. He wanted to avoid the traditional terminology and establish a classification of words based on distributive analysis, that is, the ability of words to combine with other words of different types. At the same time, the lexical meaning of words was not taken into account. According to Charles Fries, the words in such sentences as 1. Woggles ugged diggles; 2. Uggs woggled diggs; and 3. Woggs diggled uggles are quite evident structural signals, their position and combinability are enough to classify them into three word-classes. In this way, he introduced four major classes of words and 15 form-classes. Let us see how it worked. Three test frames formed the basis for his analysis:
Frame A - The concert was good (always);
Frame B - The clerk remembered the tax (suddenly);
Frame C – The team went there.
It turned out that his four classes of words were practically the same as traditional nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. What is really valuable in Charles Fries’ classification is his investigation of 15 groups of function words (form-classes) because he was the first linguist to pay attention to some of their peculiarities.
All the classifications mentioned above appear to be one-sided because parts of speech are discriminated on the basis of only one aspect of the word: either its meaning or its form, or its function.
In modern linguistics, parts of speech are discriminated according to three criteria: semantic, formal and functional. This approach may be defined as complex. The semantic criterion presupposes the grammatical meaning of the whole class of words (general grammatical meaning). The formal criterion reveals paradigmatic properties: relevant grammatical categories, the form of the words, their specific inflectional and derivational features. The functional criterion concerns the syntactic function of words in the sentence and their combinability. Thus, when characterizing any part of speech we are to describe: a) its semantics; b) its morphological features; c) its syntactic peculiarities.
The linguistic evidence drawn from our grammatical study makes it possible to divide all the words of the language into:
those denoting things, objects, notions, qualities, etc. – words with the corresponding references in the objective reality – notional words;
those having no references of their own in the objective reality; most of them are used only as grammatical means to form up and frame utterances – function words, or grammatical words.
It is commonly recognized that the notional parts of speech are nouns, pronouns, numerals, verbs, adjectives, adverbs; the functional parts of speech are articles, particles, prepositions, conjunctions and modal words.
The division of language units into notion and function words reveals the interrelation of lexical and grammatical types of meaning. In notional words the lexical meaning is predominant. In function words the grammatical meaning dominates over the lexical one. However, in actual speech the border line between notional and function words is not always clear cut. Some notional words develop the meanings peculiar to function words - e.g. seminotional words – to turn, to get, etc.
Notional words constitute the bulk of the existing word stock while function words constitute a smaller group of words. Although the number of function words is limited (there are only about 50 of them in Modern English), they are the most frequently used units.
Generally speaking, the problem of words’ classification into parts of speech is far from being solved. Some words cannot find their proper place. The most striking example here is the class of adverbs. Some language analysts call it a ragbag, a dustbin (Frank Palmer), Russian academician V.V.Vinogradov defined the class of adverbs in the Russian language as мусорная куча. It can be explained by the fact that to the class of adverbs belong those words that cannot find their place anywhere else. At the same time, there are no grounds for grouping them together either. Compare: perfectly (She speaks English perfectly) and again (He is here again). Examples are numerous (all temporals). There are some words that do not belong anywhere - e.g. after all. Speaking about after all it should be mentioned that this unit is quite often used by native speakers, and practically never by our students. Some more striking examples: anyway, actually, in fact. The problem is that if these words belong nowhere, there is no place for them in the system of words, then how can we use them correctly? What makes things worse is the fact that these words are devoid of nominative power, and they have no direct equivalents in the Ukrainian or Russian languages. Meanwhile, native speakers use these words subconsciously, without realizing how they work.
LECTURE 5: THE NOUN
The noun is the central lexical unit of language. It is the main nominative unit of speech. As any other part of speech, the noun can be characterised by three criteria: semantic (the meaning), morphological (the form and grammatical catrgories) and syntactical (functions, distribution).
Semantic features of the noun. The noun possesses the grammatical meaning of thingness, substantiality. According to different principles of classification nouns fall into several subclasses:
According to the type of nomination they may be proper and common;
According to the form of existence they may be animate and inanimate. Animate nouns in their turn fall into human and non-human.
According to their quantitative structure nouns can be countable and uncountable.
This set of subclasses cannot be put together into one table because of the different principles of classification.
Morphological features of the noun. In accordance with the morphological structure of the stems all nouns can be classified into: simple, derived ( stem + affix, affix + stem – thingness); compound ( stem+ stem – armchair ) and composite ( the Hague ). The noun has morphological categories of number and case. Some scholars admit the existence of the category of gender.
Syntactic features of the noun. The noun can be used un the sentence in all syntactic functions but predicate. Speaking about noun combinability, we can say that it can go into right-hand and left-hand connections with practically all parts of speech. That is why practically all parts of speech but the verb can act as noun determiners. However, the most common noun determiners are considered to be articles, pronouns, numerals, adjectives and nouns themselves in the common and genitive case.
2. The category of number
The grammatical category of number is the linguistic representation of the objective category of quantity. The number category is realized through the opposition of two form-classes: the plural form :: the singular form. The category of number in English is restricted in its realization because of the dependent implicit grammatical meaning of countableness/uncountableness. The number category is realized only within subclass of countable nouns.
The grammatical meaning of number may not coincide with the notional quantity: the noun in the singular does not necessarily denote one object while the plural form may be used to denote one object consisting of several parts. The singular form may denote:
oneness (individual separate object – a cat);
generalization (the meaning of the whole class – The cat is a domestic animal);
indiscreteness (нерасчлененность or uncountableness - money, milk).
The plural form may denote:
the existence of several objects (cats);
the inner discreteness (внутренняя расчлененность, pluralia tantum, jeans).
To sum it up, all nouns may be subdivided into three groups:
The nouns in which the opposition of explicit discreteness/indiscreteness is expressed : cat::cats;
The nouns in which this opposition is not expressed explicitly but is revealed by syntactical and lexical correlation in the context. There are two groups here:
Singularia tantum. It covers different groups of nouns: proper names, abstract nouns, material nouns, collective nouns;
Pluralia tantum. It covers the names of objects consisting of several parts (jeans), names of sciences (mathematics), names of diseases, games, etc.
The nouns with homogenous number forms. The number opposition here is not expressed formally but is revealed only lexically and syntactically in the context: e.g. Look! A sheep is eating grass. Look! The sheep are eating grass.
3. The category of case.
Case expresses the relation of a word to another word in the word-group or sentence (my sister’s coat). The category of case correlates with the objective category of possession. The case category in English is realized through the opposition: The Common Case :: The Possessive Case (sister :: sister’s). However, in modern linguistics the term “genitive case” is used instead of the “possessive case” because the meanings rendered by the “`s” sign are not only those of possession. The scope of meanings rendered by the Genitive Case is the following :
Possessive Genitive : Mary’s father – Mary has a father,
Subjective Genitive: The doctor’s arrival – The doctor has arrived,
Objective Genitive : The man’s release – The man was released,
Adverbial Genitive : Two hour’s work – X worked for two hours,
Equation Genitive : a mile’s distance – the distance is a mile,
Genitive of destination: children’s books – books for children,
Mixed Group: yesterday’s paper
Nick’s school cannot be reduced to one nucleus
To avoid confusion with the plural, the marker of the genitive case is represented in written form with an apostrophe. This fact makes possible disengagement of –`s form from the noun to which it properly belongs. E.g.: The man I saw yesterday’s son, where -`s is appended to the whole group (the so-called group genitive). It may even follow a word which normally does not possess such a formant, as in somebody else’s book.
There is no universal point of view as to the case system in English. Different scholars stick to a different number of cases.
There are two cases. The Common one and The Genitive;
There are no cases at all, the form `s is optional because the same relations may be expressed by the ‘of-phrase’: the doctor’s arrival – the arrival of the doctor;
There are three cases: the Nominative, the Genitive, the Objective due to the existence of objective pronouns me, him, whom;
Case Grammar. Ch.Fillmore introduced syntactic-semantic classification of cases. They show relations in the so-called deep structure of the sentence. According to him, verbs may stand to different relations to nouns. There are 6 cases:
Agentive Case (A) John opened the door;
Instrumental case (I) The key opened the door; John used the key to open the door;
Dative Case (D) John believed that he would win (the case of the animate being affected by the state of action identified by the verb);
Factitive Case (F) The key was damaged ( the result of the action or state identified by the verb);
Locative Case (L) Chicago is windy;
Objective case (O) John stole the book.
4. The Problem of Gender in English
Gender plays a relatively minor part in the grammar of English by comparison with its role in many other languages. There is no gender concord, and the reference of the pronouns he, she, it is very largely determined by what is sometimes referred to as ‘natural’ gender for English, it depends upon the classification of persons and objects as male, female or inanimate. Thus, the recognition of gender as a grammatical category is logically independent of any particular semantic association.
According to some language analysts (B.Ilyish, F.Palmer, and E.Morokhovskaya), nouns have no category of gender in Modern English. Prof.Ilyish states that not a single word in Modern English shows any peculiarities in its morphology due to its denoting male or female being. Thus, the words husband and wife do not show any difference in their forms due to peculiarities of their lexical meaning. The difference between such nouns as actor and actress is a purely lexical one. In other words, the category of sex should not be confused with the category of sex, because sex is an objective biological category. It correlates with gender only when sex differences of living beings are manifested in the language grammatically (e.g. tiger – tigress). Still, other scholars (M.Blokh, John Lyons) admit the existence of the category of gender. Prof.Blokh states that the existence of the category of gender in Modern English can be proved by the correlation of nouns with personal pronouns of the third person (he, she, it). Accordingly, there are three genders in English: the neuter (non-person) gender, the masculine gender, the feminine gender.
LECTURE 6: THE VERB. 1.General characteristics
Grammatically the verb is the most complex part of speech. First of all it performs the central role in realizing predication - connection between situation in the utterance and reality. That is why the verb is of primary informative significance in an utterance. Besides, the verb possesses quite a lot of grammatical categories. Furthermore, within the class of verb various subclass divisions based on different principles of classification can befound.
Semantic features of the verb. The verb possesses the grammatical meaning of verbiality - the ability to denote a process developing in time. This meaning is inherent not only in the verbs denoting processes, but also in those denoting states, forms of existence, evaluations, etc.
Morphological features of the verb. The verb possesses the following grammatical categories: tense, aspect, voice, mood, person, number, finitude and phase. The common categories for finite and non-finite forms are voice, aspect, phase and finitude. The grammatical categories of the English verb find their expression in synthetical and analytical forms. The formative elements expressing these categories are grammatical affixes, inner inflexion and function words. Some categories have only synthetical forms (person, number), others - only analytical (voice). There are also categories expressed by both synthetical and analytical forms (mood, tense, aspect).
Syntactic features. The most universal syntactic feature of verbs is their ability to be modified by adverbs. The second important syntactic criterion is the ability of the verb to perform the syntactic function of the predicate. However, this criterion is not absolute because only finite forms can perform this function while non-finite forms can be used in any function but predicate. And finally, any verb in the form of the infinitive can be combined with a modal verb.
2. Classifications of English verbs
According to different principles of classification, classifications can be morphological, lexical-morphological, syntactical and functional.
A. Morphological classifications..
I. According to their stem-types all verbs fall into: simple (to go), sound-replacive (food - to feed, blood - to bleed), stress-replacive (import - to im port, transport - to transport, expanded (with the help of suffixes and prefixes): cultivate, justify, overcome, composite (correspond to composite nouns): to blackmail), phrasal: to have a smoke, to give a smile (they always have an ordinary verb as an equivalent). 2.According to the way of forming past tenses and Participle II verbs can be regular and irregular.
B. Lexical-morphological classification is based on the implicit grammatical meanings of the verb. According to the implicit grammatical meaning of transitivity/intransitivity verbs fall into transitive and intransitive. According to the implicit grammatical meaning of stativeness/non-stativeness verbs fall into stative and dynamic. According to the implicit grammatical meaning of terminativeness/non-terminativeness verbs fall into terminative and durative. This classification is closely connected with the categories of Aspect and Phase.
C. Syntactic classifications. According to the nature of predication (primary and secondary) all verbs fall into finite and non-finite. According to syntagmatic properties (valency) verbs can be of obligatory and optional valency, and thus they may have some directionality or be devoid of any directionality. In this way, verbs fall into the verbs of directed (to see, to take, etc.) and non-directed action (to arrive, to drizzle, etc.):
Syntagmatic classification of English verbs
(according to prof.G.Pocheptsov)
V Vobj. She shook her head
Vaddr. He phoned me
V2 – V10 Vobj.-addr. She gave me
V11 – V15 Vadv. She behaved well
V1 V2 – V24 V16 – V24 Vobj.-adv. He put his hat
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